An independent use-phase analysis of SPF versus air-permeable insulations was recently completed by Sustainable Solutions of Royersford, PA. This analysis compares the differences in carbon emissions from a typical home insulated to the 2018 IECC energy code in Houston, Richmond and Minneapolis. Due to the increased air tightness of homes insulated with open-cell and HFO-based closed-cell SPF, the additional reduction of CO2 emissions during the service life of the home can remove between 14-23 cars from the road for a whole year. For more information, see the summary and detailed reports at